Publication date: February 2014Source:Peptides, Volume 52 Author(s): Yimin Shao , Geheng Yuan , Yan Feng , Junqing Zhang , Xiaohui Guo Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been proved to have effects of anti-hyperglycemia and β-cell preservation. However, it is still unclear whether there are differences between early and late GLP-1 intervention in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We divided the mice into 5 groups: early treated group (n=7, 8-week old, fasting glucose>10mmol/l), late treated group (n=7, 10-week old, fasting glucose>20mmol/l), early control group (n=7), late control group (n=7) and wild type group (n=7). Treated group was injected with liraglutide (a GLP-1 analog) 300μg/kg bid for 4 weeks, while control group was given saline at the same time. The results showed that compared with control group, food intake and body weight gain were reduced in both early and late treated group (p<0.05), and there was no significance between the two treated groups. Early liraglutide intervention showed better improvements in glucose control, acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) and disposition index (before vs. after treatment, AIRg 1.01±0.53 vs. 2.98±0.63, disposition index 10.81±0.89 vs. 27.4±2.15) than late intervention (AIRg 0.99±0.02 vs. 1.41±0.32, disposition index 3.47±0.38 vs. 6.43±1.62, p=0.001). The histopathology of the pancreas showed the estimated β-cell mass (BCM) was increased more in early treated group than that in late one (0.03 vs. 0.01g). Expressions of the proliferation related genes PDX-1, MafA and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in early treated group were 1.81, 2.57 and 1.59 times as much as that in late treated group. In conclusion, early liraglutide intervention was better in glucose control, β-cell function improvement and β-cell mass preservation.